This addendum to the code of practice for the determination of absorbed dose for x-rays below 300 kV has recently been approved by the IPEM and introduces three main changes: (i) Due to a lack of available data the original code recommended a value of unity for kch in the very-low-energy range (0.035–1.0 mm Al HVL). A single table of kch values, ranging from 1.01 to 1.07, applicable to both designated chamber types is now presented. (ii) For medium-energy x-rays (0.5–4 mm Cu HVL) methods are given to determine the absorbed dose to water either at 2 cm depth or at the surface of a phantom depending on clinical needs. Determination of the dose at the phantom surface is derived from an in-air measurement and by extending the low-energy range up to 4 mm Cu HVL. Relevant backscatter factors and ratios of mass energy absorption coefficients are given in the addendum. (iii) Relative dosimetry: although not normally forming part of a dosimetry code of practice a brief review of the current literature on this topic has been added as an appendix. This encompasses advice on techniques for measuring depth doses, applicator factors for small field sizes, dose fall off with increasing SSD and choice of appropriate phantom materials and ionization chambers.
R J Aukett, J E Burns, A G Greener, R M Harrison, C Moretti, A E Nahum and K E Rosser
Amidst concerns of radiological terrorism, there are institutional initiatives to replace radionuclide sources with lower energy X-ray sources. As researchers transition, questions remain regarding whether the biological effects of gamma-rays may be recapitulated with...