Poor survival rates of patients with tumors arising from or disseminating into the brain are attributed to an inability to excise all tumor tissue (if operable), a lack of blood-brain barrier (BBB) penetration of chemotherapies/targeted agents, and an intrinsic tumor radio-/chemo-resistance. Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein orchestrates the cellular DNA damage response (DDR) to cytotoxic DNA double-strand breaks induced by ionizing radiation (IR). ATM genetic ablation or pharmacological inhibition results in tumor cell hypersensitivity to IR. We report the primary pharmacology of the clinical-grade, exquisitely potent (cell IC50, 0.78 nM), highly selective [>10,000-fold over kinases within the same phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase–related kinase (PIKK) family], orally bioavailable ATM inhibitor AZD1390 specifically optimized for BBB penetration confirmed in cynomolgus monkey brain positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of microdosed 11C-labeled AZD1390 (Kp,uu, 0.33). AZD1390 blocks ATM-dependent DDR pathway activity and combines with radiation to induce G2 cell cycle phase accumulation, micronuclei, and apoptosis. AZD1390 radiosensitizes glioma and lung cancer cell lines, with p53 mutant glioma cells generally being more radiosensitized than wild type. In in vivo syngeneic and patient-derived glioma as well as orthotopic lung-brain metastatic models, AZD1390 dosed in combination with daily fractions of IR (whole-brain or stereotactic radiotherapy) significantly induced tumor regressions and increased animal survival compared to IR treatment alone. We established a pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic-efficacy relationship by correlating free brain concentrations, tumor phospho-ATM/phospho-Rad50 inhibition, apoptotic biomarker (cleaved caspase-3) induction, tumor regression, and survival. On the basis of the data presented here, AZD1390 is now in early clinical development for use as a radiosensitizer in central nervous system malignancies.
Stephen T. Durant, Li Zheng, Yingchun Wang, Kan Chen, Lingli Zhang, Tianwei Zhang, Zhenfan Yang, Lucy Riches, Antonio G. Trinidad, Jacqueline H. L. Fok, Tom Hunt, Kurt G. Pike, Joanne Wilson, Aaron Smith, Nicola Colclough, Venkatesh Pilla Reddy, Andrew Sykes, Annika Janefeldt, Peter Johnström, Katarina Varnäs, Akihiro Takano, Stephanie Ling, Jonathan Orme, Jonathan Stott, Caroline Roberts, Ian Barrett, Gemma Jones, Martine Roudier, Andrew Pierce, Jasmine Allen, Jenna Kahn, Amrita Sule, Jeremy Karlin, Anna Cronin, Melissa Chapman, Kristoffer Valerie, Ruth Illingworth and Martin Pass.